First developed in the early 20th century it was used extensively by the United States Navy as a logistics support technique in the Pacific theatre of World War II, permitting US carrier task forces to remain at sea indefinitely.

Prior to underway replenishment, coaling stations were the only way to refuel ships far from home. The Royal Navy had an unparalleled global logistics network of coaling stations and the world's largest collier fleet. This capability allowed the Navy to project naval power around the world and far from home ports. This had two disadvantages: the infrastructure was vulnerable to disruption or attack, and its use introduced a predictable pattern to naval operations that an enemy could exploit.

The speed was too slow to be practicable, and calm weather was required to keep the neighbouring ships together. Lieutenant Robert Lowry was the first to suggest the use of large-scale underway replenishment techniques in an paper to the think tank Royal United Services Institute.

He argued that a successful system would provide a minimum rate of 20 tons per hour while the ships maintain a speed of five knots. His proposal was for transfer to be effected through watertight coal carriers suspended from a cable between the two ships. Although his concept was rejected by the Admiraltythe advantages of such a system were made apparent to strategists on both sides of the Atlantic.

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Over 20 submissions were made to the RN between and alone. The main technical problem was ensuring a constant distance between the two ships throughout the process.

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According to a report from The Timesa French collier had been able to provision two warships with tons of coal at a speed of six knots using a Temperley transporter in The United States Navy also became interested in the potential of underway replenishment.

Lacking a similar collier fleet and network of coaling stations, and embarking on a large naval expansion, [3] the Navy began conducting experiments in with a system devised by Spencer Miller and the Lidgerwood Manufacturing Company of New York. His device kept a cable suspended between the two ships taut, with a quick-release hook that could travel up and down the line with the use of a winch.

The RN embarked on more extensive trials inand achieved a rate of 19 tons per hour. To meet the requirement for a rate of at least 40 tons per hour, Miller implemented a series of improvements, such as improving the maintenance of tension of the cable, allowing heavier loads to be supported. Miller also collaborated with the British Temperley Company, producing an enhanced version, known as the Temperley-Miller system. RN trials with this new system in achieved an unprecedented average rate of 47 tons per hour and a peak rate of 60 tons per hour.

The Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company also patented its "Express equipment", which delivered supplies to the broadside of the ship, instead of from the aft. The company offered the system to the Admiraltyclaiming that it had achieved a rate of tons per hour, but the offer was declined.

A Royal Navy engineer, Metcalf, suggested an alternative system inwhere two cables were used, and the cable tension was maintained with the use of a steam ram. Trials were held inwhich demonstrated an optimal operating speed of 10 knots with a transfer rate of 54 tph. These coaling tests achieved 35 tph while steaming at seven knots, which fell short of expectations. None of these coal systems approached the transfer rates required to make RAS practicable, considering that a battleship required over tons and a small destroyer required As a result, it could take 60 hours or more to refuel a battleship, with both vessels steaming at five knots, during which time both were vulnerable to attack.

With the transition to oil as the main fuel for ships at sea, underway replenishment became practicable since liquid could be continuously pumped posing fewer problems than the transfer of solids.

to the rear at sea

In January the Royal Navy conducted experiments with transfers between the oiler Petroleum and the battleship Victorious. Experiments were undertaken with both bronze and steel hose attached to a three-inch wire jackstay, with another wire used as a travelling jackstay for the hose. As the Victorious was coal-fired, water instead of oil was pumped between the two vessels.

The trial found that a transfer rate of tons per hour could be achieved with the vessels travelling at speeds up to 12 knots in fine weather. The trial found that it took five hours to pass the hoses from the Petroleum to the Victoriousincluding a one-hour meal break, with it taking three hours to return the hoses to the oiler.

The trial found that the oiler's replenishment mechanism had a tendency to break due to the high pumping pressures required.The guided-missile destroyer USS Fitzgerald is heading back to sea nearly three years after it was involved in a collision that killed seven sailors and seriously damaged the ship's starboard side, the Navy said in a press release on Monday.

The Fitzgerald will undergo sea-testing to make sure the ship is ready to return to duty this spring, the Navy said. Pascagoula is about 7, miles away from the southern coast of Japan, where, at a. The incident, and a second, separate collision two months later that killed 10 sailors aboard the USS John S.

McCain, prompted an investigation and a wave of soul-searching within the Navy surface warfare community. The McCain left its Japan port for sea testing in December.

As the Fitzgerald underwent repairs, the lawyers of its former commander, Cmdr. Bryce Benson, claimed the Navy had publicly scapegoated Benson for the collision. Bill Moran "ignored the accused's presumption of innocence. Despite the comments, the Navy allowed Benson to retire at his current rank, ProPublica first reported in November. Meanwhile, the Navy said it hopes to test the Fitzgerald's navigation, damage control, mechanical and electrical systems, combat systems, communications, propulsion and other systems.

Its new commander is enthusiastic to get started. My crew is looking forward to moving onboard the ship and continuing our training to ensure we are ready to return to the fleet," said Cmdr. Scott Wilbur, Fitzgerald's commanding officer. Air Force. Marine Corps. Coast Guard. More Sections.

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The Blotter. Mandatory Fun. PCS Moves. Area Guides. Military Tech.Washington CNN The Pentagon's senior leadership broadcast a different message than President Donald Trump on Tuesday, with military leaders warning the coronavirus crisis could last well into the summer as the President seeks to open the economy back up.

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Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. More Videos Esper details how Department of Defense is helping coronavirus efforts. Doctor: New study indicates everyone should get tested. Doctor: We're lost without widespread Covid testing. Tiny Louisiana parish has highest Covid death rate in US.

Underway replenishment

Kellyanne Conway makes false claim on Fox about Covid Governor fires back at Trump: Testing is a quagmire. Chris Cuomo announces wife has virus: It breaks my heart. See residents protest quarantine guidance in Michigan. Waiting for stimulus checks is 'life and death' for some. Los Angeles mayor says large gatherings unlikely until See mom reunite with newborn after battle with Covid Coronavirus survivor describes his battle with delirium. Lead scientist says coronavirus vaccine could be ready soon.

Inside Trump's 'mind-boggling' coronavirus response. Trump describes the 'scariest day' of his life. Researcher explains social distancing projection. The severity of the challenge was underlined with the news that three US sailors tested positive for the virus while at sea.

That may or may not apply to the United States," said Gen. Mark Milley the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, when asked how long the crisis could last during an online town hall. Milley and Defense Secretary Mark Esper took questions from service members during the town hall. Maybe could be as late as July. Milley was clear that "no one actually knows" when the crisis would be over, but that they were looking at "a variety of models.

On the same day that the President said at a Fox News town hall that he wants the country " opened up and just raring to go by Easter," Esper made it clear the Pentagon was preparing for a longer period of social distancing. Esper says military 'can't meet everybody's needs' as coronavirus outbreak escalates. Esper said that Pentagon employees would be teleworking for "weeks, for sure," and "maybe months," after announcing on Monday that the Pentagon was increasing the number of staff that would be teleworking, and limiting the number of access points into the building.

He further warned that the Defense Department, despite stockpiling medical supplies, would likely face shortages of personal protective equipment, such as masks and gloves, as the civilian health care system is currently dealing with, "until the private sector industry can pick up the slack.

Later on Tuesday the Pentagon announced that three sailors aboard the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt have tested positive for the virus and have been flown to a military medical facility for treatment. They are the first reported cases of the virus aboard a US Navy ship while it was at sea. The carrier was last in port 15 days ago as part of a visit to Vietnam.

However, Navy officials would not say if the sailors were exposed to the coronavirus while there, noting that multiple aircraft had flown to the carrier in the intervening period.This is the first series, though their trip from London to Cornwall was the first leg of their journey. The series comprised three programmes, covering their journey from Cornwall to the Bristol Channel and their winter mooring at Penarth in Cardiff Bay. The second in the series comprised four programmes and covered the journey after the first winters break.

The last programme in this series follows them from the western Scottish Isles to winter port in Aberdeenshire via the Caledonian Canal and Loch Ness. The third and final series in the set comprised four programmes, and covers the final leg of their journey. The final programme of the previous series left them needing a winter mooring in Eastern Scotland, and the first programme of this series tells of their winter mooring in Buckie and Banff, Aberdeenshire.

The series was first broadcast in February and March In Augustwhilst filming an episode in the River Medway estuarySpall and his wife became lost and had to be guided in by the Sheerness lifeboat.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Timothy Spall: Back at Sea. The Guardian. Retrieved 6 March Retrieved 2 October Message in a Bottle.

Event occurs at Categories : British television series debuts British television series endings s British television series BBC high definition programmes BBC television documentaries British travel television series English-language television programs. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Languages Add links. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.Remember a time when cruising truly meant getting away from it all?

Blissfully unaware of work piling up at the office, no cell phones buzzing with messages or laptops cluttering up luggage, the cruiser simply tuned out and kicked back. But times have changed.

The Internet has become a huge part of our lives, including at sea where Wi-Fi is available on virtually all seagoing cruise ships with the exception of a few barebones expedition ships.

With the industry's biggest players investing millions of dollars in communication infrastructures -- on land, on ships and in the sky via satellites -- more passengers are finding Wi-Fi service and prices more akin to what they are used to finding on land.

There are still plenty of ships with spotty, slow and expensive service, but they are no longer the norm. Over the next several years, these improvements will roll out to even more cruise ships. Passengers will be able to send emails, stream movies and Skype or FaceTime with friends almost as easily as they do at home. But -- and this is key -- there will always be some level of unreliability, especially the farther out to sea you sail.

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If you've ever cursed in frustration as your screen froze mid-email or are quivering in fear of being unable to check in as much as you'd like on an upcoming vacation, here are the seven things you need to know about Internet at sea. It's the sad truth: Internet at sea, when provided by satellite service, is not going to be as reliable as on-land connections anytime soon. To understand why shipboard Internet isn't comparable to the broadband you enjoy at home, you first need to understand the technology behind it.

The big golf ball-shaped domes visible on top of cruise ships are protective shells that encase freely moving satellite antennae. These antennae transmit a signal from the ship to a satellite, which then sends a signal back down to earth. Maritime communication companies have sped up this process, which used to take a long time, through various means including adding more satellites, increasing the bandwidth that can be sent during each transmission and linking up with land-based towers when sailing closer to shore.

But the biggest limitation to reliability continues to be a clear path between the ship and the satellite. All the data being sent from the ship to the satellite and back for example, pages loading on a browser has to traverse this pathway.

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In order for there to be a connection, the antenna needs to be pointing at, and have an unobstructed line of sight to, the satellite. But sometimes that pathway between the antenna and the satellite is blocked.

In port, it might be that a tall building is directly in between the ship and satellite. In the Norwegian fjords, the tall mountains often block satellites, so don't count on satellite reception there.

It is also true that the ship itself can block a signal -- on certain courses, the funnel or mast might be between the antenna and satellite. Furthermore, when the ship has to change course quickly, it isn't uncommon for the signal to be temporarily lost.

to the rear at sea

Consider this yet another reason to frequently back up what you're writing. Barring any obstructions, you can still get an Internet signal down in Antarctica and as far as 80 degrees north latitude in Svalbard. Congestion within the path also can be a problem. As more people are on their computers or cell phones requiring data, congestion can build up and passengers could notice slower speeds.

Interestingly, river boats many of which offer free Internet continue to offer a particularly frustrating online experience, if only because of heightened expectations.

Being so close to civilization, you'd think there should be a quicker connection. However, hills or mountains in the river valleys often block satellite connections, so river ships are forced to use cellular for their primary Internet connection.

When the ship is near a cell phone tower, newer 3G or 4G service can provide faster service than what can be delivered through satellite.

The disadvantage comes in areas with a lack of cell towers, where the cell signal is weaker and the connection speed slower. The satellites used for at-sea Internet connections cost hundreds of millions of dollars. A single cruise line can't afford to put a satellite up but they are teaming up with maritime communications companies that either own their own satellites or rent such large amounts of bandwidth that they can bring prices down.

Prices are being driven down even further as some cruise lines the Carnival family of brands, for instance begin to use hybrid systems that combine the more expensive satellite connections with cheaper land-based links.

But social media does not require a lot of bandwidth; cruisers who want to use bandwidth-hogging applications like FaceTime and Skype will usually have to pay a lot more.

Additionally, updating cruise ships with modern technology takes time, and it will take a couple of years for entire fleets to be updated.See our picks. A cute koala Rob Schneider must rescue a fellow animal from a feared crocodile Alan Cumming.

Travis and Whitney visit their grandparents and stumble upon the evil plan of a greedy land developer. Travis falls through a magical portal which transports him to the world of American hero, Paul Bunyan and his pet ox, Babe. Join Dr. Dolittle's nephew, John, when he is called to Dolittle Island to rescue the animals from King Ramsey and his army of gorillas. In this animated adaptation of the Bible story Moses hears the voice of God from a burning bush, which inspires him to confront Egypt's pharaoh and demand freedom for the Israelite slaves.

A circus lion Jason Priestley finds himself in a magical land where he becomes the leader of a journey to stop the Wicked Witch of the East Lynn Redgravea task which may lead him to lose a part of himself.

A young boy's luck changes when he finds a magic potion that makes him "the best at everything" for one single day. Trained in the skills of sea power, Pi the fish can fight a shark, sink a squid or batter any random predator that ever threatens his friends and neighbors on the reef. Unfortunately, being Sweet and savvy talking golden retriever, Bailey Jon Lovitzis one doggone lucky pooch when his devoted owner, Constance Pennington Jackie Burroughsleaves him her entire Kevin Yuri Lowenthala young flying fish, lives in New York harbor.

He dreams of leading his family back to Barbados - the mythical kingdom of the flying fish. One fateful day, his adventurous nature finds him captured by a fishing ship and delivered to the fish tank of a famous restaurant in New York City's Chinatown, where he meets a quiet young boy who also longs for excitement and adventure.

The two become fast friends and begin a daring quest to get Kevin back home to the sea.

to the rear at sea

Written by IndustryWorks. When it comes to films about fish, Pixar's 'Finding Nemo' which 'Back to the Sea' has been inevitably and constantly compared to, perhaps not exactly fairly but understandably is very hard to beat.

As unfair as it is to say, the quality is vastly inferior here in 'Back to the Sea' in comparison and, after viewing it online, it's a pretty lame film on its own terms too. There are worse animated films revolving around fish characters certainly, nothing is worse than one of the worst animated or ever films 'The Reef', 'Izzy's Way Home' and 'SeeFood' are also worse. There is not much to recommend with 'Back to the Sea', there are a few heart-warming moments here and there and the soundtrack fits nicely and while not a truly memorable one doesn't make either mistake of being too intrusive or low-key.

Regarding the voice actors, they do their best, with Yuri Lowenthal, Tom Kenny, Mark Hamill despite not being in it enough and Tara Strong voicing their characters with a lot of spirit.

However, the story could have been better executed. It was potentially very identifiable but let down by dreary pacing, a paper-thin story structure, being too out-of-kilter dark in places which muddled the tone and too much of it not being particularly logical.

Too much of it is very vague and the clarity factor is low, due to a lot of elements begging for an explanation that either are half-baked or never comes altogether. The parent-child relationship could have had a lot of heart but is not featured enough and is under-cooked dramatically.By Dwight Jon Zimmerman - May 26, Shipyard workers had just three days to patch up Yorktown and return her to the fleet in order for her to participate in the Battle of Midway.

Naval History and Heritage Command photo. Despite hull damage that caused her to trail an oil slick ten miles long, the carrier was able to reach a sustained speed of twenty knots. The voyage to the naval base would take eighteen days. Meanwhile, her skipper, Capt. Chester W. It would be a preliminary estimate of what would repairing the Yorktown would require.

Dated May 25 and delivered by plane while the Yorktown was about a hundred miles from Oahu, the report that Nimitz read was sobering. A pound armor-piercing bomb had plunged through the flight deck 15 feet inboard of her island and penetrated fifty feet into the ship before exploding above the forward engine room.

Six compartments were destroyed, as were the lighting systems on three decks and across 24 frames. The gears controlling the No.

She had lost her radar and refrigeration system. Near misses by eight bombs had opened seams in her hull from frames to and ruptured the fuel-oil compartments. Rear Adm. Aubrey Fitch, aboard the damaged carrier, estimated that repairing the Yorktown would take ninety days. Thanks to excellent codebreaking work by Cmdr. Joseph Rochefort and his intelligence team, Nimitz knew that the Imperial Japanese Navy planned an amphibious assault on the strategic island of Midway on June 4.

Despite being outnumbered in carriers, planes, and other ships, Nimitz was determined not to let Midway go the way of Wake Island — at least not without a fight. That meant reinforcing his available carriers Enterprise and Hornet with the Yorktown.

Claude Gillette and a team of specialists to fly to the Yorktown and make a preliminary study. They radioed back that they thought it was possible to get the carrier ready in time, but doing so would take a supreme effort. The next morning, after Nimitz had cut orders voiding the safety rule of spending a day purging her tanks of stored aviation fuel, the Yorktown eased into Drydock Number One. The caissons closed behind her, and pumps began draining out the water. With at least a foot of water still remaining in the drydock, men in waders gathered to inspect the hull.

One of them was Nimitz. One day ahead of schedule, on May 27, the Yorktown limped into Pearl Harbor.

To the rear at sea

View of damage on the third and fourth decks, amidships, aboard the USS Yorktown. The photographer is in compartment CL, shooting down through the third deck into compartment CA. Within minutes the first of 1, repairmen, who would work around the clock, swarmed into the drydock to begin repairing the Yorktown.

To satisfy the enormous power needs of the repair crews the Navy contacted Leslie Hicks, president of the Hawaiian Electric Companywho arranged a series of rolling blackouts in Honolulu.

Only the most urgent repairs were made. To satisfy the enormous power needs of the repair crews the Navy contacted Leslie Hicks, president of the Hawaiian Electric Company, who arranged a series of rolling blackouts in Honolulu. At a. On the morning of May 30, more patched than repaired but fit enough to fight, Yorktown steamed out of Pearl Harbor.

By Dwight Jon Zimmerman. My father, Barney A.